If you open an attached Word document, do some editing and save it again, without using “Save as”. Is it possible to pick up the file (the document) without opening the mail it is attached to?
When you directly open an attachment from within Outlook, the attachment is copied to and opened from a Temp folder. Recovering items from this Temp folder (also known as OutlookSecureTempFolder) is not a one step process. You can find full details on how to do this in this guide.
As an alternative you can also use OutlookTools (free) to locate the folder for you and provide easy access to it.